A group of interrelated tech domains that allow to address similar applications.
Additive Manufacturing refers to a process in which digital 3D design data is used to build up a component in layers by depositing material, whether the material is plastic, metal, concrete or one day…human tissue.
The term AM encompasses many technologies including subsets like 3D Printing, Rapid Prototyping (RP), Direct Digital Manufacturing (DDM), layered manufacturing and additive fabrication.
Advanced Robotics and Machines
Advanced Robotics includes components and technologies which improve robots performances and allow them to operate in a more autonomous way and in strict contact with people.
Advanced Robotics encompasses activities from both the hard (mechanical electrical design and fabrication, sensing solutions, actuation development etc.) and soft (control, computer software, human factors etc) systems areas.
Artificial Intelligence & Machine Learning
Artificial Intelligence is the capability of a machine to simulate intelligent human behavior.
AI refers to cognitive processes, including learning (the acquisition of information and rules to use the information), reasoning and problem solving (using the rules to reach approximate or definite conclusions) and self-correction. Particular applications of AI include expert systems, speech recognition and machine vision.
Big Data & Analytics
Big Data & Analytics technologies are techniques and tools to gather and evaluate massive amounts of data, aiming to discover among them some patterns and support the process of decision making of a company.
The term itself is evolving to favor big data-capable systems. Big data analytics refers specifically to the challenge of analyzing data of massive volume, variety, and velocity.
There are five types of Big Data Analytics: prescriptive, predictive, diagnostic, descriptive and outcome analytics.
Blockchain is a distributed database where information are stored in a safe way. It is a network in which every node has its own role in guaranteeing the information integrity.
By allowing digital information to be distributed but not copied, blockchain technology created the backbone of a new type of internet.
Blockchain is a shared immutable ledger for recording the history of transactions. It combines the openness of the internet with the security of cryptography to give everyone a faster, safer way to verify key information and establish trust.
Cloud computing is a method for delivering information technology (IT) services in which resources are retrieved from the Internet through web-based tools and applications, as opposed to a direct connection to a server.
Rather than keeping files on a proprietary hard drive or local storage device, cloud-based storage makes it possible to save them to a remote database. Cloud computing is the idea of taking all the heavy lifting involved in crunching and processing data away from the device you carry around, or sit and work at, and moving that work to huge computer clusters far away in cyberspace.
Cloud computing involves delivering hosted services over the Internet, divided into three categories: Infrastructure-as-a-Service (IaaS), Platform-as-a-Service (PaaS) and Software-as-a-Service (SaaS).
Cyber Security or Information Technology Security is a pool of techniques and tools to protect the availability and integrity of networks, programs and data from attack, damage or unauthorized access.
The core functionality of cybersecurity involves protecting information and systems from major cyberthreats. These cyberthreats take many forms (e.g., application attacks, malware, ransomware, phishing, exploit kits).
Major areas covered in cyber security are Application Security, Information Security, Disaster recovery and Network Security.
Horizontal & Vertical System Integration
System integration can spread along two directions: horizontal, that is the integration between individual subsystems (machines, equipment or production units); vertical, which refers to the capability to go beyond traditional production hierarchy levels.
With Industry 4.0, companies, departments, functions, and capabilities will become much more cohesive, as cross-company, universal data-integration networks evolve and enable truly automative value-chains.
Industrial IoT (IIoT)
The Internet of Things (IoT) is a system of interrelated computing devices, mechanical and digital machines, objects, animals or people that are provided with unique identifiers and the ability to transfer data over a network without requiring human-to-human or human-to-computer interaction.
Internet of things is the combination of two dimensions: a network of “things” and a computing system behind them. “Things” can be any electronic device with a software enabling data exchange, except a computer: headphones, cellphones, wearable devices, manufacturing sensors, home appliances, cameras, etc.
IoT brings together people, process, data and things to make networked connections more relevant and valuable than ever before - turning information into actions that create new capabilities, richer experiences and unprecedented economic opportunity for businesses, individuals and countries.
Modeling & Simulation
Modeling refers to the representation of a given system through a physical or mathematical model and it is used to simulate a product or a process.
Simulations will be used more extensively to leverage real-time data and mirror the physical world in a virtual model, which can include machines, products, and humans. This will allow operators to test and optimize the machine settings for the next product in line in the virtual world before the physical changeover, thereby driving down machine setup times and increasing quality.
User Interface is the set of technologies which allows the interaction between humans and machines and ensures useful feedbacks for the users.
The UI interface is often talked about in conjunction with user experience (UX), which may include the aesthetic appearance of the device, response time and the content that is presented to the user within the context of the user interface. An increasing focus on creating an optimized user experience has led some to carve out careers as UI and UX experts.
Virtual and Augmented Reality
Virtual reality places the user inside a completely digital environment, immersing human sensing completely in a world that only exists in the digital real.
Augmented Reality adds digital information and contents upon real world, taking the present real world and projecting digital imagery and sound into it.
Once wearable computers become more common it won’t be strange to see people interacting with and reacting to things that aren’t there from your perspective. Thanks to technologies such as augmented reality the way we work with computing devices and think about the divide between digital and analogue reality is likely to change radically.